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Effect of different disinfecting agents on heavy metals during water treatment

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of huwa-san and chlorine as disinfecting agents on heavy metals during water treatment. Nile water samples were taken from water intake throughout the fustat plant, treated with different doses of huwa-san and chlorine to evaluate their effect on the levels of water contained from Al, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Cu. It was found that the treatment with huwa-san more effective than chlorine in decreasing Al, Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu at the most doses. Also, it is more effective than chlorine in decreasing Fe and Pb concentrations at the doses 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppm while at the dose 7 ppm, the chlorine becomes more effective than huwa-san in decreasing concentration of these elements. Also, chlorine decreased Mn obviously more than huwa-san at all the doses. On the other hand, both of chlorine and huwa-san have the same effect on Zn only at the doses 2 and 3 ppm. The chlorine decreased Ni concentration more than huwa-san at the doses 2 and 3 ppm but huwa-san becomes more effective at the other doses. The results showed that the disinfection with huwa-san more effective results than chlorine at the same doses. 4 ppm of huwa-san represents the most suitable disinfection dose used during the treatment process.[...]

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Development of a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine against mastitis in dairy cows. II. Field trial

Abstract

A recently described new Staphylococcus aureus vaccine ‘‘MASTIVAC I’’ (Patent no. PTC/IL98/00627) against S. aureus udder infection elicited protection against experimentally induced infection in cows. In the present paper we describe a largescale vaccination field trial. A total of 452 Israeli Holstein heifers were included in the study over two consecutive years.

Approximately half of the heifers (228) were vaccinated while the others (224) served as a control group. Antibody response was detected in all vaccinated animals 4–5 weeks post-primary immunization and it was sustained throughout the experimental period (300–330 days). S. aureus infection could be detected in only 3 out of 228 animals (1.3%) in the vaccinated group and in 6 out of 224 (2.7%) in the control group. These numbers were too low to be statistically evaluated. However, when somatic cell counts (SCC) and milk yields were considered, a significant difference was found between the two groups, namely, the vaccinated cows in first and second lactation had 42 and 54%, respectively, lower SCCs and milk yields 0.5 kg per day higher than the non-vaccinated control cows. These results suggest that the new vaccine elicits a non-specific health improvement of the udder in addition to specific protection against S. aureus.

# 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Cattle; Mastitis; Vaccine; S. aureus[...]

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Isolation and Identification of Newcastle Disease Virus in Broiler Farms, Khuzestan Province

Abstract: Newcastle disease is common in broiler farms. It causes huge losses to the poultry industry. Because of these, investigating and identifying the disease are important. Moreover, it would be much better to use simpler and cheaper techniques while being more accurate and more sensitive. Therefore, 30 broiler farms, located in Khuzestan province, were sampled and the suspensions were prepared. Then the suspensions were inoculated into 9 to 11 days oldembryonated chicken eggs and after the incubation period were investigated with hemagglutination test. Twelve samples were positive in the haemagglutination test. Finally RT-PCR was performed on the 12 samples to detect Newcastle Disease Virus and the results were positive in six cases. It is important to mention that all six isolates were brain-sourced (also isolated from other tissues) and since all available Newcastle disease vaccines in Iran are lentogen, so the isolates were not from vaccine virus.

Authors: Babak Mohammadian ghalejooghi[...]

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The use of acidifiers in fish nutrition

It is well established in the field of aquaculture that the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) as feed additives in the diets of fish and shrimp can improve live weight gain (LWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival rates. However, scientific knowledge and public concerns, especially in the EU, over the development of cross-resistance to antibiotics of importance to human health have led to a ban or a reduction in the use of such substances worldwide. Consequently, the aquafeed industry has turned its research attention to other additives in order to maintain performance and high survival rates in aquaculture. This review shows that acidifiers are an example of a group of additives which can play an important role in future in aquaculture diets. A number of studies, in cold-water and tropical species, indicate that a broad range of organic acids, their salts or admixtures can improve growth, feed utilization and disease resistance in fish.[...]

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